Direct and indirect speech rules and examples in English

5:15 PM - By Learn English Quickly 4

We use indirect speech,sometimes called Reported speech,to tell someone what another person says or said.
The following chart includes sentences changed from quoted to reported speech using a past from.

Direct speech                                                Indirect speech
- He said,"I live in Paris."                            - He said he lived in Paris.
- He said,"I am cooking."                           - He said he was cooking.
- He said,"I have visited London twice."    - He said he had visited London twice.
- He said,"I have been working on that      - He said he had been working on that project
project for over two weeks."                         for over two weeks.
- He said,"I had already eaten."                  - He said he had already eaten.
- He said,"I will give Jack a call."              - He said he would give Jack a call.
- He said,"I can come tonight."                  - He said could come that night.
- He said,"I may buy a new car."               - He said he might buy a new car.
- He said,"I should see a doctor."              - He said he should see a doctor.
- He said,"I might go to Turkey."              - He said he might go to Turkey.

Changing pronouns and time signifiers.
When changing from direct speech to indirect speech,it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

Example : 
1- She said;"I want to bring my children."
  - She said she wanted to bring her children.

It is also important to change time words (signifiers) when referring to present,past or future time to match the moment of speaking.
Example :

1- She said,"I want to bring my children tomorrow."
  - She said she wanted to bring her children the next day.

2- Jack said,"my wife went with me to the show yesterday."
  - Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show the day before.
Indirect questions :
When reporting yes/no questions connect the reported question using 'if' when reporting questions using question words ( why,where,when,etc.) use the question word.
 Example :
1- She asked,"do you want to come with me ?"
  - She asked if I wanted to come with her.

2- Dave asked,"where I had gone the previous weekend?"
  - Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.

3- He asked,"why are you studying English ?"
  - He asked me why I was studying English.
Reported Speech Statements :
The most common verbs used in reported speech are : add,claim,explain,indicate,offered,ordered,suggested,complained,reply,denied.

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